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Dr. Xin Yu-Ling, Head of Thoracic Surgery at Friendship Hospital in Beijing, China (first two photos) and his staff have administered many EChT treatments.  The Cancer Center of P.L.A., Nanjing Ba-Yi Hospital, Nanjing, China (third and fourth photos) also treats cancer patients using EChT.  EChT is also available at Guangxi Cancer Institute and Hospital, Guangxi, China (fifth photo).  These are just three of the more than 1,000 Chinese hospitals that have administered EChT, to more than 11,000 cancer patients.

Many European cancer patients have been treated with EChT in various European hospitals and clinics including the Klinik St. Georg, Bad Aibling, Germany (photos 6 and 7) and Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden (photo 9).

In April of 1986, an excellent article by Gary Taubes (with very clear illustrations) appeared in Discovery magazine (Vol. 7) on Dr. Nordenström's efforts that resulted in the development of his BCEC theory and the application of EChT.  The article showed a photograph (photo 9) of a breast cancer patient receiving Dr. Nordentsröm's "unorthodox treatment."


In 1987, Dr. Björn Nordenström introduced BCEC and EChT to the Chinese medical profession.  Since that time, considerable progress has been made.  Numerous EChT courses and training sessions have been conducted for Chinese medical practitioners.  Clincial studies and research have provided new insight and improvements into the EChT protocol and therapeutic techniques that are complementary with EChTEChT has been widely publicized in the mass media of China.  More than 12 EChT centers and research laboratories have been established.  The first BCEC Symposium was held in Stockholm in September of 1993.  Dr. Björn Nordenström and Dr. Xin, Yu-Ling presented their initial results at that Symposium (photo 8).

During the October 1992 Symposium in China, the International Association for Biologically Closed Electric Circuits in Medicine and Biology (IABC) was formed.  Dr. Nordenström was elected IABC President and Dr. Xin, Yu-Ling was elected IABC Vice President.

In October, 1997, the Fourth International Symposium on Biologically Closed Electric Circuits was held in Minneapolis, MN.  Symposium hosts were Dr. George O'Clock and his wife, Clara O'Clock.  Partial support for the Symposium was provided by Minnesota State University, Mankato (MN).  A 295 page Proceedings was printed for this Symposium.  In July of 1998, Dr. O'Clock was appointed IABC President, Dr. Nordenström became IABC President Emeritus and Carl Firley was appointed IABC Vice President and Secretary General (photo 10).

In September of 1998, the Third Congress of the IABC and Second International Symposium on Electrochemical Treatment of Cancer was held in Beijing, China.  The Congress hosts included Quian, Xinz Hong, Chen, Shao Wu and Xin, Yu Ling.  In July, 2001, the Seventh International Symposium on Biologically Closed Electric Circuits was held in Helsingør, Denmark.  The Symposium host was Dr. Finn Scøtt Andersen, Chief M.D. for Humlegaarden Cancer Clinic.  An excellent summary of some of the papers presented at the Denmark Symposium was written by Dr. Ralph W. Moss in the Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients (October, 2001) , entitled "The War on Cancer" ( http://www.cancerdecisions.com/Townsend/Oct2001.html ). During these two IABC meetings, aIABC Board of Directors was established.


IABC Executuve Committee

President:  Carl F.Firley (U.S.)

President Emeritus:  George D. O'Clock, Ph.D.  (U.S.)

Vice President for Asia: Li Jing-Hong, M.D. (China)

Vice President for Europe:  Jörgen Nordenström, M.D.  (Sweden) 

Vice President for South America: Paulo L. Farber, M.D.  (Brazil)




Jennie Burke, M.D.


Andrew Moulden, M.D., Ph.D.


Xin Yu-Ling, M.D., Liu, Gan Zhong, M.D.,  Pang, Hong Bin, M.D., Tang, Bu Jian

Wei, Zhang, M.D.,  Ye, Yu Kun, M.D.


Luis Bergues, M.D.


Finn Scøtt Andersen, M.D.


Photios Anninos, Ph.D.,  Nikolaos Tsagas, Ph.D.


Andras Szasz, Ph.D.


Katsuki Ito, M.D.

S. Korea

Seayoung Ahn


Omar Fakhri, Ph.D.


Bart Flick, M.D.; Jerome True, DC, FIACN

In 1999, the Third Congress on Electro Cancer Treatment and the Fourth Congress on Biologically Closed Electric Circuits was hosted by Dr. Friederich Douwes, M.D., Klinik St Georg ( http://www.klinik-st-georg.de/englisch/Frameset.html ) in Bad Aibling, Germany.  Papers covering a wide range of topics were presented; including electrochemical therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, orthomolecular medicine, thermotherapy and oxidative stress.  Dr. Douwes also served as host of the 1994 IABC Symposium that was also held in Bad Aibling, Germany.

In September of 2004, the 8th International Congress of the IABC International Association for Biologically Closed Electric Circuits in Biomedicine was held at Guangxi University of Medical Sciences, Nanning, China. The Congress President was Dr. Tang Bu-Jian, of Guangxi University.

Dialogue and interaction between IABC members continues. The IABC also continues to interact with other biomedical and scientific groups that have similar interests in the field of medical therapeutics and diagnostics. Additional IABC meetings and conferences were held in Florida (2002 and 2008), Alexandroupolis, Greece (2003) and Sao Paulo, Brazil (2005). These meetings addressed a variety of topics involving the use of electrotherapy for cancer and wound healing; along with magnetotherapy for diseases of the nervous system.

In 2001, Dr. Björn E.W. Nordenström received the International Scientific and Technological Cooperation Award from the People's Republic of China.  Inaugurated in 1994 by the State Council, the International Scientific and Technological Cooperation Award is granted to foreigners or foreign organizations that have made important contributions to China's scientific and technological advancement.  Dr. Nordenström is the first Swedish scientist to receive this award.  For more information, see the following: ( http://www.chinaembassy.se/eng/26481.html ).



The first issue of the Journal of the IABC In Medicine and Biology was published in January - December of 2002. Dr. George O'Clock (the IABC President at that time) was Editor-In-Chief. Dr. Björn E.W. Nordenström (IABC Emeritus President) and Carl Firley (IABC Vice President and Secretary General) served as editors. Following that effort, Dr. O'Clock constructed this web site.    

In 2007, Dr. O'Clock (as IABC President Emeritus) published a book addressing principles, design, applications and clinical study issues/results for a variety of electrotherapeutic devices and techniques. Dr. O'Clock also included some  magnetotherapeutic principles/device/applications comparisons in the book:

G.D. O'Clock, Electrotherapeutic Devices: Principles, Design and Applications, Artech House, Boston, MA (2007).

In the EChT Clinical Studies section of this website and in chapter 3 of the Electrotherapeutic Devices book, Dr. O'Clock expresses some displeasure concerning the use of terms that are either incomplete or inappropriate for Björn Nordenström's electrochemical therapy (EChT) technique. Terms such as electrolytic ablation therapy or electro - acupuncture therapy (both designated as EAT) are often used improperly. In order to give appropriate credit to the man who developed this technique and provide more rigor to its name; this electrotherapeutic modality is designated, Nordenström's Electrolytic Ablation Therapy - Electrochemical Therapy, or NEAT - EChT

The following errata sheet should be helpful in clarifying some of the numerical, unit and formula errors in the book:


  Errata Sheet for Electrotherapeutic Devices: Principles, Design and Applications 

                                    George D. O'Clock, Ph.D.

pg. 6       At the bottom of paragraph 3, the expression for current density (J) is given as current (I) divided by area (A). The divide sign is not very clear, and this occurs for a number of similar mathematical expressions in the book where the variables and the divide sign are all "squashed" together.

pg. 17     Problem 5. (Answer on page 206) This problem is soooo interesting. Some sources will state that the average power for each cell in the human body is approximately 1 pW. If one includes all of the cells in the body (tissue, blood cells, bacteria, etc), the total number of cells in the human body ranges from 75 Trillion to 100 Trillion cells. So the basal (or rest) body power would be somewhere between 75 W and 100 W for the human body. That is close (estimates are 100 W for basal metabolic requirements and up to 1,600 W for short periods of exercise time - - - Apparently, we are at the 90 W level even when we are sleeping). But a 1 pW power requirement per cell does not fit in very well with our daily glucose/fat consumption, adensosine tri-phosphate (ATP) production-consumption requirements in tissue and the hydrogen ion flow required to maintain our rest metabilism in tissue. Freitas, in his book "Nanomedicine" states that the power requirement per cell is approximately 30 pW. If one multiplies that number by the approximately 5 Trillion tissue cells in the human body, a body power of 150 W results. However, I do not believe that all of our cells are engaged in the same amount of production-consumption of ATP and energy expenditure at the same time. I assume that, at any one time, approximately 4.5% of our cells are requiring the major part of our energy stores. And over a time period of minutes or hours, the group of cells requiring the major part of the energy stores will change. So my calculations estimate that each one of those cells within the 4.5% that require most of the energy available, have a power of 560 pW. 

pg. 27     On the third line, the Faraday constant should be 96,487 C / mole. "C" represents Coulombs.

pg. 28     In the middle of the page near the end of the paragraph, the "voltages of 23 to 47 µV" should be corrected to read "voltgages of 23 to 47 mV." 

pg. 77     Reference 1 is: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. Reference 2 is: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal.

pg. 108    In Figure 5.1 (a) and (b), the numbers 284 and 426 on the horizontal axis should be 213 and 284.

pg. 164-165  Prior to publication, I went through a lot of agony on these two pages. At the top of page 165, beginning on the fifth line, the sentence should be changed to "- - - the endogenous current densities are in the range of 0.05 mA / cm squared to 1 mA / cm squared." The next sentence starting with "In this case - - - " should be eliminated. The calculations on these two pages used a little more rigor along with the model provided byThomasset (Figure 3.3). Using typical cell impedances and impedances of the interstitial space around the cells, some significant discrepancies occur for calculated current densities and current levels compared with those associated with the more simple examples given in problems 2, 5 (b) and 6 in Chapter 1. When the results from all of these models (simple and complex) are compared, differences in current densities and currents of a factor of twenty can occur between the simple and more complex formulations. This often happens in physics and biology as more analytical rigor is employed, more realistic assumptions and values are used and more detail is applied to the models. Let's just say that the calculations given are useful for estimates, but these two pages are a "work in progress."

pg. 203   The approximately 20 million hospital admissions per year figure does not account for an additional 16 to 17 million admissions associated with OB/GYN and ER. Total hospital admissions were closer to 37 million per year in the 2004-2005 time frame.                   

pg. 206   In line 11, "t he" should be written, "the."  

pg. 207   In problem 8, the exponent (fourth power) for the Stefan - Boltzmann relationship is incorrect. Instead of raising the quantity of the tumor temperature minus the ambiant temperature to the fourth power, each temperature should be rasied to the fourth power individually, and then subtracted. The resulting tumor temperature is still very hot (436 degrees Kelvin or 320 degrees Farenheit), but not as hot as is stated in the book. Fortunately, in spite of the error, the conclusions of the problem are not changed.

pg. 208   The 0.17 degree Celsius temperature is high by a factor of pi (3.14). This makes the calculated temperature difference even smaller and the conclusions of the problem are not changed.

pg. 209    The number 2.368 appears twice, and the decimal point is somewhat obscurred.


As additional errors and typos are discovered, they will be included in the above errata sheet.


From:  G. Taubes, Discover, Vol. 7, April, 1986; Y.L. Xin, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Biologically Closed Electric Circuits, October 26-29, 1997; G.D. O'Clock, Journal of the IABC, Vol. 1, January-December, 2002; G.D. O'Clock, Electrotherapeutic Devices" Principles, Design and Applications, Artech House, Boston, MA (2007).